Pellicle: A rigid protein layer just below the cell membrane. Aerobic Anoxygenic Photosynthesis: Photosynthetic process which takes place under aerobic conditions. Reverse Transcription: Process of copying information from RNA to DNA. Antiseptic: A substance that inhibits the growth and development of micro-organisms, but does not necessarily kill them. The trunk of these species is enclosed in a shell. Rhizomorph: Mass of fungal hyphae that are organized in long, thick strands with a darkly pigmented outer rind that contains specialized tissues for absorption and water transport. Aporepressor: A product of regulator genes, that combines with the corepressor to form the complete repressor. Spy Hopping: A vertical rise out of the water or tall grasses performed by certain cetaceans or land mammals respectively. Tarsus: The bone, which contributes in making the ankle joint, located between the tibia, fibula and metatarsus in mammals. Clarification: The process of purification of water, where suspended material in the water is removed. Warning Coloration: Distinctive bold color patterns found on certain organisms, that work as a warning to predators. Nematocyst: This refers to tiny hairlike structures in coelenterates which is used by them to eject stingers. Biophysics. Solarization: A technique to control the growth of pathogens, wherein a plastic sheet is used to cover moistened soil in hot climates, thereby trapping the incoming radiation. Ostracum: The calcified portion of an invertebrate’s shell. Maxilla: A paired appendage usually located behind the mandibles of arthropods. Diffused Air Aeration: A diffused air activated sludge plant takes air, compresses it, and discharges it with force, below the surface of water. These procedures maybe laboratory procedures such as microbiological cultures. Aposematic: Color construct characteristics in animals (changing color), either as a warning to other animals or as a self defense mechanism. Pour Plate: The method of performing a plate count of micro-organisms. Mucigel: Gelatinous material found on the surface of roots growing in normal soil. Rate at the pulmonary veins then use of genetic materials are called the surfaces. Endoparasite: This type of organism or parasite (such as tapeworm) exists and feeds inside the bloodstream or tissue of its host. It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website. A group of individuals of the same species living in a specific geographical area and reproducing. A number of zooid together function like a single animal, example coral. Dominant Trait: The relationship between two alleles in which one masks the ex… Colonization: Establishment of an entire community of micro-organisms at a designated site. Also called behavioral neuroscience, biological psychology, and biopsychology. Guano: Large deposits of substances composed chiefly of the feces of birds or bats. Clone: Cells which have descended from a single parent cell. The similarity is based on plant structures (such as trees, grasses and shrubs), plant spacing (forest, savanna, woodland), leaf types (such as needle-leaf and broad-leaf), and climate. Colorless Sulfur Bacteria: A group of non-photosynthetic bacteria that oxidize sulfur compounds, thus deriving their energy by this process. Biotrophic: Close associations seen between two different organisms, that work mutually to benefit each other. Teichoic Acids: All wall, membrane, or capsular polymers containing glycerophosphate or ribitol phosphate residues. Slime Layer: A diffuse layer found immediately outside the cell wall in certain bacteria. Filly: A female horse that is four years or younger in age. Carbon-Nitrogen (C/N) ratio: Ratio of carbon mass to nitrogen mass in soil or other organic material. The DNA of a cell holds all the information that a cell needs to keep itself alive. And don't just think we mean Earth. Mostly contains oligotrophic proteobacteria, many of which have distinctive morphological features. Brilles: The German word for ‘glasses’, it is a transparent, immovable layer of scale/skin that covers the eyes of some creatures, such as snakes and lizards, and provides a protective layer. Tentacle: The slender, elongated, flexible, appendages found in animals, located near their mouth. Gular Fluttering: A cooling mechanism adopted by birds, in which they flap their flap membranes rapidly in the throat to increase evaporation. Generalist: Any organism that can survive in a wide-ranging habitat. Casque: A formation on the head resembling a helmet, that is located on the head of a lizard. Radioimmunoassay: An immunological assay that makes use of radioactive antibodies or antigens to detect certain substances. Microaerophile: Micro-organisms that grow well in relatively low oxygen concentration environment. The radiation is emitted by radioactive material within the object or tissue. Zygodactyly: This is the arrangement of toes formed in birds, in which the outer front toe faces the back, resulting in two toes facing forward and two backward. Biology is subdivided into separate branches for convenience of study, though all the subdivisions are interrelated by basic principles. Pasteurization: Process of using heat to kill or reduce the activity of micro-organisms in heat-sensitive materials. Active Transport: The movement of cellular substances like ions or molecules by traveling across the membrane, towards a level of higher concentration, while consuming energy. Heterothallic: Hyphae that are incompatible with each other, thus requiring another compatible hypha to mate with, to form a dikaryon or a diploid. NAPL: A non:aqueous phase liquid which may be lighter or denser than water. They may be physiologic or pathologic. This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. Arboreal: Arboreal refers to animals that have adapted themselves to live and move in the trees. Inducible Enzyme: An enzyme generated in response to an external factor. Vesicles: Spherical structures formed intra-cellularly, by certain arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. 6789 Quail Hill Pkwy, Suite 211 Irvine CA 92603. Microbiology: The study of micro-organisms, often with the aid of a microscope. This value is in comparison to the population of the desired species. Bacterial Photosynthesis: A mode of metabolism, which is light-dependent and where carbon dioxide is reduced to glucose, which is used for energy production and biosynthesis. Carnasial Tooth: A premolar tooth, which is used to efficiently tear and slice meat of prey. Alveolar Macrophage: A highly active and aggressive phagocytic macrophage, located on the epithelial lining of the lung alveoli, which ingests and destroys any inhaled particles and micro-organisms. Water Retention Curve: A graph showing soil water content as a function of increasingly negative soil water potential. This technique is used especially by owls and harriers. These hyphae are capable of penetrating cortical cells. Bacteriochlorophyll: A light absorbing pigment found in phototrophic bacteria, like green sulfur and purple sulfur bacteria. Basidiospore: The sexual spore of the Basidiomycotina, which is formed on the basidium. Conjugative Plasmid: A self transmissible plasmid, or a plasmid that can encode all functions required to bring about its conjugation. Diapause: A period of inactive hormonal development as a response to unfavorable environmental conditions. Human Body: The entire physical structure of a human being. Blowhole: A blowhole is an opening on the top of a cetacean’s head, from which air is inhaled and exhaled. Autoimmunity: A condition where a specific humoral or cell mediated immune response is initiated against the constituents of the body’s own tissues. Blood. Also called the biosynthetic phase, light-independent reactions, dark reactions, or photosynthetic carbon reduction (PCR) cycle. Reannealing: The process seen on cooling, where two complementary strands of DNA hybridize back into a single strand. Our site includes quite a bit of content, so if you're having an issue finding what you're looking for, go on ahead and use that search feature there! Humus: Fine organic substance, composed of partial or fully-decomposed animal or plant matter, and found in soil. Alkalophile: Organisms that have an affinity for alkaline media, thus, growing best in such conditions. Anapsid: An extinct subclass of reptiles except for the turtles, that have no opening in the temporal region of the skull. Uronic Acid: A class of acidic compounds that contain both carboxylic and aldehydic groups and are oxidation products of sugars. Mandible: The lower jaw of a vertebrate animal, or the upper or lower part of the beak (bill) in birds. Biodiversity: A term of measurement, that gauges the diversity of organisms in a habitat or ecosystem. Plaque: A localized area of lysis or cell inhibition which is caused due to virus infection. Municipal Solid Waste: The total consumer and commercial waste generated in a certain confined and restricted geographic area. Anthropogenic: Something that is derived from human activities. They resemble fungi, and most are free living, particularly in soil. Discharges from septic tanks are passed through these trenches. Zooid: An organism which is capable of existing separately. Nanopore: Soil pore having dimensions in nanometers. Blastomycosis: An infection caused due to Blastomyces dermatitidis, it predominantly affects skin, lungs, and bones. Cere: A raised and membranous covering, that is located at the base of the upper mandible in a bird. Alternately, it is also used to describe the act of raising chicks to a fully grown state by the parents. Bioluminescence: The production of light in living organisms by the enzyme luciferase. A cross-reference guide is in-cluded to direct readers to the terms they are interested in. It is also used in genetic engineering. Water Vascular System: A system of fluid filled tubes and ducts, that connect with the tube feet of most marine invertebrates. Countershading: The development of dark colors on the areas exposed to the sun and light colors on the undercarriage. Frustule: Siliceous wall and protoplasm seen in diatoms. Gas Vacuole: A sub-cellular organelle, found only in prokaryotes, which are gas-filled vesicles. Isolation: A procedure wherein a pure culture of an organism is obtained from a sample or an environment. Aminoacyl or Acceptor Site (A site): The site on the ribosome that contains an aminoacyl-tRNA at the beginning of the elongation cycle during protein synthesis. Proboscis: An elongated mouth organ which is an important feeding appendage in organisms. Ichthyology: A branch of zoology dedicated to the systematic study of fish. Delist: The act of removing an animal species from the list of endangered, threatened, and vulnerable wildlife list. It is useful for cloning large fragments of DNA. Bristles: Bristles are long, stiff strands of hair or feathers. Isolating Mechanism: Prevention of breeding between species due to behavior, morphology, genetics, or a geographical barrier.[Back]. Artificially Acquired Passive Immunity: A type of temporary immunity that results from the introduction of antibodies produced by another organism or by in vitro methods, into the body. Diffuse Coevolution: Evolution of a species depending upon the evolution of some other species, which itself may be evolving depending on some other factors. Biota: They constitute the living components (flora and fauna) of an ecosystem, biome, or habitat. Manure: Animal excreta, with or without a bedding of litter at various stages of decomposition. Insertion: A type of genetic mutation, wherein single or multiple nucleotides are added to DNA. Siderophore: A metabolite that is formed by some micro-organisms, that forms a strong coordination compound with iron. Glossary of Microbiology Terms and DefinitionsA | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z. Abiotic Factors: Non-living factors that can affect life, like soil, nutrients, climate, wind etc. This website uses cookies to improve your experience. Constriction: This is a method used by non-venomous snakes to tightly grip and suffocate their prey, by coiling around the prey. Tail Slapping: The forceful slapping of tails on the surface of water by dolphins. Read more on the structure and functions of cytoplasm. Remiges: Flight feather of a bird used to control direction during flying. Fetus: A fetus is a developing organism, which has moved beyond the embryonic stage, but is yet to be born. in list order from A to Z from Z to A from easy to hard from hard to easy. Lysis: The rupture and destruction of a cell, resulting in loss of cellular contents. Wild Type: Strain of a microorganism that is isolated from nature. Basic Biology Terms - Displaying top 8 worksheets found for this concept.. abdomen. Fluorescent Antibody: This is a laboratory test that is done, wherein antibodies are tagged with fluorescent dye to detect the presence of micro-organisms. Lamella: Seen in plants as the layers of protoplasmic membranes in chloroplast that contain photosynthetic pigments. Common examples are that of, plant parts like leaves, fruits, flowers, and bark being separated from the plant. Brood Patch: Located on the lower abdomen of birds, this patch develops by the shedding of feathers in this area, and the consequent thickening of the skin, after which it becomes densely populated with blood vessels. Allochthonous Flora: Organisms that are not originally found in soil, but reach there via precipitation, sewage, diseased tissue, and other such means. Rhizobacteria: Bacteria that are found in roots, where they aggressively colonize. Nidifugous: The phenomenon of leaving the nest within a few days of hatching.[Back]. Aliphatic: Pertaining to any member of one of the two major groups of organic compounds, with the main carbon structure as a straight chain. Humic Acid: Dark-colored organic material extracted from the soil by the use of reagents and which is precipitated by acid. Feces: Indigestible waste products expelled from an organisms digestive tract. Fertilization takes place outside the female’s body. TERM 30 species DEFINITION 30 In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biological classification and a taxonomic rank. Insertion Sequence: The simplest possible type of transposable elements. Herbaceous: Stems and branches that are soft, and not hard and woody. Nitrogen Cycle: The cycle where nitrogen is used by a living organism, then after the organism dies is restored to soil, followed by its final conversion to its original state of oxidation. Moreover, since science is a part of everyone’s life, it is something that is important to all individuals.