There is no relationship between households’ background factors and the sanitation conditions of the household. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this dissertation are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UKDiss.com. Other sources of outbreaks have included raw milk, unpasteurized apple juice, raw sprouts, raw spinach, and contaminated water. What types of common bacteria are prevalent in the stored drinking water of households? These factors, which include the condition of surface water and soil conditions of the coastal areas, have a direct bearing on the options for sanitary means of disposing of human waste for the community. This research assessed people’s practice of personal hygiene in Bogoso and surrounding villages. Copyright © 2003 - 2021 - All Answers Ltd is a company registered in England and Wales. The good news is that E. coli O157:H7 is easily destroyed by cooking to 160F throughout. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Fewer pests and slower population growth was correlated with facility cleanliness. The three factors that. Sanitation can best be defined as the way of collecting and disposing of excreta and community liquid waste in a germ-free way so as not to risk the health of persons or the community as a whole (WEDC, 1998). The requirements for pH values set by the Ghana Standards for drinking water is 6.5 to 8.5 (GS 175-Part1:1998). Once more, the report show that a few households do not own any toilet facilities and depend on the bush for their toilet needs, that is 2.1%, 7.3%, and 5% for Accra, Kumasi, and Sekondi-Takoradi correspondingly. Hygiene is articulated in the efforts of an individual to safeguard, sustain and enhance health status (Anderson and Langton, 1961). Like the Ghana Standards, no E.coli or thermotolerant bacteria should be detected in a 100 ml sample of drinking water. The basics of a cleaning and sanitation process, as mentioned above, are time, action, chemicals and temperature, or TACT. For example, in a study of 11 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, only between 35-80% of water systems were operational in the rural areas (Sutton, 2004). False. According to IRC (2001:0), issues that need to be addressed when assessing sanitation would include: Sanitation is a key determinant of both fairness in society and society’s ability to maintain itself. It was noted that, female heads were less likely to collect water in larger households. VAT Registration No: 842417633. Reinforcement refers to any event that increases chances that a response will occur again (Coon, 1989). Cultural issues play active part in hygiene and sanitation behaviour especially among members of rural communities. They have sponsored about 10 hand dug wells for villages in the district. Factors affecting the action of chemical sanitizers: 1. Despite the decrease, the values involved are still quite high. Another survey in South Africa recognized that over 70% of the boreholes in the Eastern Cape were not working (Mackintosh and Colvin, 2003). To establish the extent to which sanitation behaviour is affected by household socio-cultural demographic factors like age and education level of the head. 2. The infant mortality rate currently stands at about 55 deaths per 1,000 live births (CIA, 2006). Most strains of E. coli bacteria are not dangerous however, this particular strain attaches itself to the intestinal wall and then releases a toxin that causes severe abdominal cramps, bloody diarrhoea and vomiting that lasts a week or longer. "Trained personnel are more effective and efficient in cleaning tasks," says Patch. Investment in sanitation did not predict management success. al, 2003). Data collected was analysed using SPSS and the Pearson Product Moment Correlation Value(R) technique. Manufacturer’s instructions must be followed. Social relationships seem to protect individuals against behavioural disorders and they facilitate health promoting behaviour (Barlow and Durand, 1995; Ho. Escherichia coli O157:H7 is probably the most dreaded bacteria today among parents of young children. The Wassa West District in the Western Region is home to six large scale mining companies and hundreds of small scale and illegal mining units. According to the World Health Organization (2004), 1.1 billion people lacked access to an enhanced water supply in 2002, and 2.3 billion people got poorly from diseases caused by unhygienic water. soak-tank operations, other energy inputs can be reduced (e.g. The Ghana Standards specify 5 TCU or 5 Hazen units for colour after filtration. This study aimed to identify the most effective ways to improve hygiene, sanitation, and access to water for better trachoma control, and to find better ways of monitoring progress. It may be mentioned that the health impact indicators of sanitation programmes are not easy to define and measure, particularly in the short run. Registered office: Venture House, Cross Street, Arnold, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, NG5 7PJ. For example, some viruses, bacteria and parasites cause increased discharge of fluid, either by invading and inflaming the lining of the small intestine (inflammation stimulates the lining to secrete fluid) or by producing toxins (chemicals) that also fire up the lining to secrete fluid but without causing inflammation. Furthermore, the research identified the relationships between some socio-cultural demographic factors of households and the sanitation practice of its members. These findings appear to correlate with the early results of an online survey that seeks a broader perspective of industry trends. Goal 4, which aims at reducing child mortality by two thirds for children under five, is the focus of this study. Most of our daily activities are learned in the household. The aims of all these projects were to improve hygiene and sanitation so as to reduce disease transmission. We compared two food processing facilities for differences in sanitation. It is based on questionnaire interviews of 120 household heads and 77 caretakers of young children below the age of 5years, direct observation of clues of household sanitation practice as well as analyses of household water samples in six surrounding communities in Bogoso. Bioassay results suggested an equal level of effectiveness of fumigation for both facilities, but monitoring data suggested that the cleaner facility (Facility A) had slower pest population rebound rates than the less-clean facility (Facility B). According to USAID, for further progress to be made in the fight against diarrhoea, the concentration will need to include prevention, especially in child health programs. They showed the relevance of animal influence in the effectiveness of WASH measures, as well as the difficulties of designing studies that look at this particular interaction. Water quality is defined in terms of the chemical, physical, and biological constituents in water. Of course, more than one of these anomalous processes may occur at the same time. Describe how the facility and its cleanliness can affect the overall safe handling of food. 1. The effect of the treatments on the reduction of surface microbial load Access to waste disposal systems, their regular, consistent and hygienic use and adoption of other hygienic behavioural practices that block the transmission of diseases are the most important factors. Other development partners complimenting the efforts of the central government include NGO’s WACAM, Care International and Friends of the Nation (FON). ph, water activity, product characteristics) could affect the product and therefore affect the type, and amount , of data that the establishment ultimately decides is needed to ensure that the alternative cleaning procedures are effective … Conditions of the colon such as collagenous colitis can also impede the capacity of the colon to soak up water. WACAM is an environmentally based NGO which monitors water pollution by large scale mining companies. According to the USAID’s hygiene improvement framework, a thorough approach to diarrhoea at the national level must tackle the three key elements of any triumphant program to fight disease. Clean water and sanitation considerably lessen water- linked diseases which kill thousands of children every day (United Nations, 2006). Water washed diseases are caused by poor personal hygiene and skin or eye contact with contaminated water. Water related diseases are caused by insect vectors, especially mosquitoes that breed in water. A healthful environment, devoid of risky substances allows the individual to attain complete physical, emotional and social potential. To investigate the occurrence of diarrhoea among young children (0-59 months old) in the households. Programs in several countries have confirmed that interventions can and do reduce diarrhoea morbidity. The environment is understood as comprising the whole set of natural or biophysical and man-made or socio-cultural systems, in which man and other organisms live, work or interact (Ocran, 1999). The concept is explained by figure 3.3 below; The first part, water supply systems, addresses mutually the issue of water quality and water quantity, which reduces the risk of contamination of food and drink. They have also donated a couple of motor bicycles to public health workers in the district who travel to villages. 5.2 Chemical disinfection methods. The effectiveness of the natural leader training at increasing interactions and impacting behaviors fits with diffusion theory, in which adoption is initiated by external factors (e.g., triggering), while diffusion beyond early adopters is supported by endogenous factors, such as peer-communication and opinion leaders (e.g., natural leaders). A lot more illnesses occur but on a lower scale and these include intestinal worms, coughs and typhoid fever. many factors (e.g. Individuals begin to learn behaviour patterns from childhood by observing especially the parents and later on their siblings. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jspr.2014.09.010. These structures and processes determine the culture of the society, their social behaviour, beliefs and superstition about health and diseases. A critical constituent of successful prevention efforts is an effective monitoring and appraisal strategy. Water-related diseases can be grouped into four categories ( Bradley, 1977) based on the path of transmission: Waterborne diseases are caused by the ingestion of water contaminated by human or animal faeces or urine containing pathogenic bacteria or viruses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. The environment is human life’s supporting system from which food, air and shelter are derived to sustain human life. Although the health care system has dealt comprehensively with the symptoms of diarrhoea, it has done insufficiently to bring down the overall incidence of the disease. Increased amounts of water in stool can occur if the stomach and/or small intestine produce too much fluid, the distal small intestine and colon do not soak up enough water, or the undigested, liquid food passes too quickly through the small intestine and colon for them to take out enough water. Further examples of sanitation systems in bad condition have also been acknowledged in rural Ghana, where nearly 40% of latrines put up due to the support of a sanitation program were uncompleted or not used (Rodgers et al., 2007). The third element is prevention through hygiene improvement. Two food processing facilities in the Midwest were evaluated on their levels of sanitation and then monitored for insect pests following fumigation with Profume™. According to the 2006 projection, the population of the district is expected to reach 295,753 by the end of the year 2009 (WWDA, 2006). Knowledge and involvement on the part of management and the employees in the facility's pest management program, may serve as a better indicator of sanitation's impact on facility pest management. ( 1997 ). Reference this, Tags: Environmental StudiesHealth and Safety. Diarrhea is of precise concern since it has been recognized as the second most universal disease treated at clinics and one of the major contributors to infant mortality (UNICEF, 2004). The incidence of diarrhoea among infants and acute respiratory infection remained 30 and 60 cases per 1,000 populations respectively. A synthesis of several studies analysed in the second selection stage of the review shows a significant relationship between animal and WASH factors for disease transmission. Why is the prevalence of malaria and diarrhea diseases so high in the district? Registered Data Controller No: Z1821391. Prior research has suggested that sanitation, a preventative measure, may improve the effectiveness and reliability of other control methods, which may also reduce the cost of pest management for food processors when using these methods. The third element, household technologies and materials, refers to the increased accessibility to such hygiene supplies as soap (or local substitutes), chlorine, filters, water storage containers that have restricted necks and are covered, and potties for small children. For example, women are hardly seen urinating in public due to a perceived shame in the act but men can be left alone if found doing it. Sanitation's impact on the effectiveness of the pest management programs of food processing facilities. That is; if it does not increase or create new environmental hazards (IRC, 2001). According to the United States Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2006), with diarrhoea, stools typically are looser whether or not the frequency of bowel movements is increased. These include scabies, trachoma and flea, lice and tick-borne diseases. The Tarkwa Mine has so far spent 10.5million US dollars of which 26% went into health, water and sanitation projects, 24% into agricultural development, 31% into formal education and the remaining went into other projects like roads and community centre construction ( GGL, 2008). Disinfection does not necessarily kill all microorganisms, especially resistant bacterial spores; it is less effective than sterilization, which is an extreme physical or chemical process that kills all types of life. of the factors contributing to the poor environmental While the actual dumpsites may occur several miles sanitation in the hostels of Bayero University Kano. The others are acute eye infection, rheumatism, dental carries, hypertension, pregnancy related complications and home/occupational accidents. However, in order to solve any problem it is important to appreciate the issues that contribute to it; after all, identifying the problem in itself is said to be a solution in disguise. Despite a drop in deaths owing to diarrhoea, morbidity or the health burden due to diarrhoea has not decreased, because health experts are treating the symptoms but not addressing the causes. Shear stress contributed the most to Exophiala spp. Facility managers may use a combination of different control methods to prevent or eliminate insect outbreaks. Similarly, ensuring access to water supply systems can greatly ease the time women spend collecting water, allowing more time to care for young children and more time for income generating activities. Absolute diarrhoea is having more bowel movements than normal. Chemical Sanitizers. Thus, diarrhoea’s drain on the health system, its effects on household finances and education, and its additional burden on mothers has not been mitigated. This suggests that greater investment in sanitation is not required for improved facility cleanliness and pest management effectiveness. According to the social learning theory, behavioural processes are directly acquired by the continually dynamic interplay between the individual and its social environment (Mc Connell, 1982). Discuss heat and chemical sanitizing methods and materials. The elementary unit of society is the household and this can be defined as a residential group of persons who live under the same roof and eat out of the same pot (Friedman, 1992). In quite a lot of studies from different countries, the advancement of personal and domestic hygiene accounted for a decline in diarrhoeal morbidity (Henry and Rahim, 1990). The most successful interventions against diarrhoeal diseases are those that break off the transmission of contagious agents at home. Specifically, factors such as age, gender, township status and ethnicity, which are basic to demography, can play a role in the quality of life especially of the elderly. These include dracunculiasis, schistosomiasis and other helminths. Golden Star Resources (consist of Bogoso/Prestea Mine and Wassa Mine at Damang) also established the community development department in 2005 and has since invested 800 thousand US dollars. Ismail’s (1999) work on nutritional assessment in Africa, detected that peoples demographic features, socioeconomic and access to basic social services such as food, water and electricity correlate significantly to their health and nutrition status. Physical and Chemical Factors Several physical and chemical factors also influence disinfectant procedures: temperature, pH, relative humidity, and water hardness.