The expansion of Islam in the Mediterranean basin has been interpreted in terms of competition between two patterns of medieval intelligibility, that is to say in terms of the different conceptions of truth, connected to revelation in the two sacred texts (the Koran and the Christian gospels). ." For the Shiites, the collective memory of Islam is kept alive, since the prophetic descent ensures the continuity of interpretation. Divine revelation in Islam is inseparable from ”God’s messenger” or rasul, Mohammad’s path, which is divided into two phases, each corresponding to a collection of Surahs (chapters) of the Koran. Islamic Studies 38(1):45–62. Pirenne's well-documented generalizations have attracted praise as well as criticism from historians who are often wary of broad generalizations (see Hodges and Whitehouse 1983). The evidence shows that the majority of American Muslims are not active participants in the organized religious life of mosque or Islamic center, but continue to identify themselves as Muslims in a social setting characterized by prejudice and misunderstanding (Haddad and Smith 1994; Haddad and Lummis 1987). Are there certain social, economic, historical, and other preconditions that predispose some Muslim countries more than others to Islamic fundamentalism? (2002) Introduction. A. The empirical evidence shows that the heartlands of the Islamic world, from Indonesia to Egypt, are undergoing a religious renaissance. (2004) The Modern Middle East. Weber Max, 1958 The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, trans. Weber's characterization of Islam has been criticized as "factually wrong" (Turner 1974b, p. 238). The peasantry absorbed Islamic concepts and practices into its folk religion and developed a distinctive contemplative tradition. The core of Ibn Khaldun's sociology is his concept of Asabiyya (social solidarity). That institutional framework and its accompanying normative requirements as they apply to gender roles, dress codes, veiling and seclusion, and patriarchy are by and large universally accepted in Muslim societies, although their observance varies with economic conditions. Each religious tradition has a place in the social structure. Civilization needs cities to provide economic wealth, which is achieved through specialization and a complex division of labor. A number of historical studies have dealt with this issue primarily in terms of the diffusion of Jewish and Christian teaching in pre-Islamic Arabia that laid the foundation for the rise of Islam (Torrey 1933; Bell 1926; Kroeber 1948). The first factor inhibits the handing over of spheres of life to nonreligious authority, and the second makes it difficult to offer rival versions of the blueprint. Turner, Bryan 1974 Weber and Islam. If one contrasts fundamentalism with laxity along one dimension and social radicalism with traditionalism along another, according to Gellner, one gets four types of Muslim societies or social formations. While for the Shiites there is an uninterrupted investment in history with the sacred, for the Sunnis these two areas are distinct from one another and are always susceptible to conflict. Societies are not static. What are the implications of this for Islamic radicalism? 352–353). ." "The Sociology of Islam is an interpretive account of Islam as a religion and civilization in world history and global society, which focuses on the notions of knowledge-culture, power and civility to provide key interpretive and analytic tools to practitioners. "Sociology of Islam Fundamentalism emerged in all the major world religions in the last quarter of the twentieth century and gained prominence and influence in the 1990s (Marty and Appleby 1991, 1992, 1993). —— 1978 Economy and Society. Future Directions in the Sociology of Religion A Special Section edited by: Christian Smith, University of Notre Dame The past 20 years have seen major developments in theoretical and empirical scholarship in the sociological study of religion. However, selective literal, noncontextual, and ahistorical interpretations of sacred texts by Islamic scholars over time have shaped the average Muslim's conservative views and attitudes toward women. While a majority of Islamic societies have been and are differentiated social formations, a small but significant number have been and are societies that can be classified as undifferentiated social formations. Two schools arose: the Bassora school and the Baghdad school. New York: Oxford University Press. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Benkheira, M. H. (1997) L’Amour de la Loi. Arkoun, M. (1984) Pour une critique de la raison islamique (For a Criticism of Islamic Reason). —— 1985a Islam Dari Konservatism Sampai Fundamentalisme., "Sociology of Islam Kroeber, Alfred 1948 Anthropology. Some Ulema even appear to have invented tradition to bolster their interpretations which may in fact conflict with Koranic statements (Levy 1972; Rahman 1982; Mernissi 1989; Rugh 1984). Crisis of Self-Image. Islamic Militancy: A New Paradigm? New York: Harcourt Brace. Huntington (1993) postulates that the greatest threat of conflict for the West comes from religious fundamentalism, especially Islamic fundamentalism. British Journal of Sociology. Pan-Islam is the ideology that calls for the unity and cooperation of Muslims worldwide on the basis of their shared Islamic identity. In this way, signs and symbols define the whole religious universe of Islam and they are the foundations of Islamic dogma, the I gaz al qur’an (the inimitability of the Koran): ”If all the humans and all the Jinns banded together in order to produce a Qur’an like this, they could never produce anything like it, no matter how much assistance they lent one another” (Koran, Surah XVII, verse 88). Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. . Social science scholarship in the twentieth century has been influenced by three dominant intellectual traditions: Marxism, Weberian , and functionalism. The empire of Charlemagne, a northern Germanic empire inconceivable in any previous century, marked the beginning of the Middle Ages. The social structure was highly differentiated and developed, and when Islam came, its expression was influenced profoundly by the context. Far from avoiding mediation, folk Islam is centered on it. They correspond to different ways of interpreting the concept of authority. (2001) La democratie a-t-elle un avenir dans les pays du sud? It discusses the long-term dynamics of Islam as both a religion and as a social, political and cultural force. Tamney, Joseph 1980 "Modernization and Religious Purification: Islam in Indonesia." A common label used in contemporary discourse to refer to undifferentiated Muslim social formations is "the Islamic state.". There are four methods of reasoning in the formulation of the law in Sunni Islamism: igma (consent); qiyas (analogy); ray (personal opinion); and igtihad (interpretation), which provides an essentially closed praxis. Gerholm, T. and Y. G. Lithman, eds. The empirical evidence shows that religious institutions and religious elites tend to enjoy greater public trust and legitimacy in differentiated compared to undifferentiated Muslim societies. If the term "fundamentalism" is defined to mean a high degree of devotional religiosity, these heartlands are becoming fundamentalist (Hassan 1999d). Boston: Beacon Press. 55–59). Utman, to avoid disputes, opted for the more conservative system. Berkeley: University of California Press. The notion of inimitability refers to the notions of fascination and amazement: the divine language interrogates man, as the creator asks him to witness the eternity of his mystery (gaib) and the mystery of creation. Its rulers, deprived of the wealth generated by trade, had to reward their followers with grants of land, and thus feudalism was born. The following topics will be covered in this article: social, ideological, and economic factors in the origins of Islam; Islam and the rise of the modern West; Islam, Muslim society, and social theory; Islam and fundamentalism; the Islamic state; gender issues in Muslim societies; and, Muslim minorities in the West. 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